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The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns,…
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The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking… (edição: 2004)

de Nick Hazlewood

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1212179,179 (3.56)2
Throughout history, blame for the introduction of slavery to America has been squarely placed upon the male slave traders who ravaged African villages, the merchants who auctioned off humans as if they were cattle, and the male slave owners who ruthlessly beat both the spirits and the bodies of their helpless victims. There is, however, above all these men, another person who has seemingly been able to avoid the blame that is due her. The origins of the English slave trade -- the result of which is often described as America's shame -- can actually be traced back to a woman, England's Queen Elizabeth I. In The Queen's Slave Trader, historian Nick Hazlewood examines one of the roots of slavery that until now has been overlooked. It was not just the money-hungry Dutch businessmen who traded lives for gold, forever changing the course of American and world history, but the Virgin Queen, praised for her love of music, art, and literature, who put hundreds of African men, women, and children onto American soil. During the 1560s, on direct orders from Her Majesty, John Hawkyns set sail from England. His destination: West Africa. His mission: to capture humans. At the time, Elizabeth was encouraging a Renaissance in her kingdom. Yet, being the intelligent monarch that she was, the queen knew her country's economy could not finance the dreams she had for it. An early entrepreneur, she saw an open market before her and sent one of her most trusted naval commanders, Hawkyns, to ensure a steady stream of wealth to sustain all the beauty that was her passion. Like his fellow Englishmen, Hawkyns believed the African people's dark skin stood for evil, filth, barbarity -- the complete opposite of the English notion of beauty, a lily white complexion and a virtuous soul, as exemplified by the queen. To him it was simple. If the white English were civilized and pure, the dark Africans must be savage. It was a moral license for Hawkyns to capture Africans. After landing on the African coast, he used a series of brutal raids, violent beatings, and sheer terror to load his ships. The reward for those who survived the attacks: seven weeks chained together in a space not meant for human beings, smallpox and measles, dehydration and malnourishment. Hawkyns realized the cruelty inflicted on these people, and he hoped they would survive. After all, a dead African was a dent in his profit margin. John Hawkyns was the first English slave trader, and his actions and attitudes toward his cargo set the precedent for how those following him, over the next two hundred years, would act. To fully understand the mind-set of the men who made their living trafficking human souls, one needs to look at the man who began it all -- and the woman behind him.… (mais)
Membro:hbertinelli
Título:The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls
Autores:Nick Hazlewood
Informação:New York : William Morrow, c2004.
Coleções:Sua biblioteca
Avaliação:
Etiquetas:Non-Fiction, British History, Tudor

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The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls de Nick Hazlewood

  1. 00
    The Confident Hope of a Miracle: The True History of the Spanish Armada de Neil Hanson (myshelves)
    myshelves: Elizabeth I's captains (Hawkins, Drake, et. al.) v. the Spanish a few years later.
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This is a great read, the history of Britain's role in the slave trade during the reign of Elizabeth I. While this book concentrates on the slavery aspect, John Hawkyns and others including Sir Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh were a vital part of the defense of England from the power and wealth of Spain. They raided Spanish merchant ships and brought treasure home to England to help finance it's defence. Everything they took weakened Spain further. Elizabeth I cannily protested innocence to the various Spanish ambassadors who complained to her about the attacks on Spanish ships. While Drake and Raleigh were close to the Queen, John Hawkyns and others like him were not and the queen never admitted to any relationship with him. Even some of her closest advisors were not aware of the extent to which these 'pirates' were funding the English Treasury. While her conduct was not particularly admirable, Elizabeth had inherited a kingdom badly in debt. Spain was a huge threat to England and it's Protestant religion. When her advisors demanded war, Elizabeth frequently responded by reminding them that wars required money and men which they did not have. Elizabeth's main acheivement was to delay a war with Spain for years through diplomacy and cunning. A war delayed was money in the bank, English lives saved, and the maintenance of the status quo. When the Spanish Armada finally set sail for England in the latter part of her reign, the English were still outnumbered badly in men and ships but they were certainly stronger than in her earlier reign. The defeat of the Armada established England as a strong and independent Protestant country though it should not be forgotten that this was not the last armada. ( )
  bhowell | Jul 2, 2008 |
Packed with detail, amazingly researched, but still somewhat plodding in the narrative. But if you can read and not feel ashamed by every single historical artefact in England, you're a stronger man than me. ( )
  lloydshep | Jun 19, 2008 |
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Throughout history, blame for the introduction of slavery to America has been squarely placed upon the male slave traders who ravaged African villages, the merchants who auctioned off humans as if they were cattle, and the male slave owners who ruthlessly beat both the spirits and the bodies of their helpless victims. There is, however, above all these men, another person who has seemingly been able to avoid the blame that is due her. The origins of the English slave trade -- the result of which is often described as America's shame -- can actually be traced back to a woman, England's Queen Elizabeth I. In The Queen's Slave Trader, historian Nick Hazlewood examines one of the roots of slavery that until now has been overlooked. It was not just the money-hungry Dutch businessmen who traded lives for gold, forever changing the course of American and world history, but the Virgin Queen, praised for her love of music, art, and literature, who put hundreds of African men, women, and children onto American soil. During the 1560s, on direct orders from Her Majesty, John Hawkyns set sail from England. His destination: West Africa. His mission: to capture humans. At the time, Elizabeth was encouraging a Renaissance in her kingdom. Yet, being the intelligent monarch that she was, the queen knew her country's economy could not finance the dreams she had for it. An early entrepreneur, she saw an open market before her and sent one of her most trusted naval commanders, Hawkyns, to ensure a steady stream of wealth to sustain all the beauty that was her passion. Like his fellow Englishmen, Hawkyns believed the African people's dark skin stood for evil, filth, barbarity -- the complete opposite of the English notion of beauty, a lily white complexion and a virtuous soul, as exemplified by the queen. To him it was simple. If the white English were civilized and pure, the dark Africans must be savage. It was a moral license for Hawkyns to capture Africans. After landing on the African coast, he used a series of brutal raids, violent beatings, and sheer terror to load his ships. The reward for those who survived the attacks: seven weeks chained together in a space not meant for human beings, smallpox and measles, dehydration and malnourishment. Hawkyns realized the cruelty inflicted on these people, and he hoped they would survive. After all, a dead African was a dent in his profit margin. John Hawkyns was the first English slave trader, and his actions and attitudes toward his cargo set the precedent for how those following him, over the next two hundred years, would act. To fully understand the mind-set of the men who made their living trafficking human souls, one needs to look at the man who began it all -- and the woman behind him.

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