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The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the… (2001)

de Israel Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman

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1,1152013,288 (3.93)29
In this groundbreaking work that sets apart fact and legend, authors Finkelstein and Silberman use significant archeological discoveries to provide historical information about biblical Israel and its neighbors. In this iconoclastic and provocative work, leading scholars Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman draw on recent archaeological research to present a dramatically revised portrait of ancient Israel and its neighbors. They argue that crucial evidence (or a telling lack of evidence) at digs in Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon suggests that many of the most famous stories in the Bible--the wanderings of the patriarchs, the Exodus from Egypt, Joshua's conquest of Canaan, and David and Solomon's vast empire--reflect the world of the later authors rather than actual historical facts. Challenging the fundamentalist readings of the scriptures and marshaling the latest archaeological evidence to support its new vision of ancient Israel, The Bible Unearthed offers a fascinating and controversial perspective on when and why the Bible was written and why it possesses such great spiritual and emotional power today.… (mais)
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2012 (my brief review can be found on the LibraryThing post linked)
http://www.librarything.com/topic/138560#3562435
  dchaikin | Sep 26, 2020 |
Much of the archeological speculation is out of date (published 2001), having been superseded by new discoveries that fill in the lacunae that the authors attempt to patch with speculation and imagination.
Since their over-arching purpose appears to be denial that David and Solomon had anything to do with the artifacts of the "real" empire of northern Israel during the Omride dynasty, they consistently dismiss anything that doesn't match their preconceived ideas of what the unified monarchy MUST have been like.

The book has bibliographies for each chapter, but no footnotes or direct citations that allow a reader to actually follow the scholarly arguments or evidences.

Maps and tables are only moderately useful. There is no listing of figures, maps, and tables in the Contents, and they are seldom directly referenced in the text, sometime appearing after all of the narrative they pertain to is concluded, thus requiring readers to page back or forward several chapters to find them. ( )
  librisissimo | Apr 1, 2019 |
Les Nouvelles révélations de l'archéologie
  guyotvillois | Oct 15, 2018 |
The Bible, in the books of Samuel and Kings, tells the story of a Jewish kingdom that was created around 1,000 BC with the anointment of King David. The kingdom prospered with David and his son Solomon, but after the death of Solomon, the fortunes of the Davidic empire turned sour. The kingdom was split in two: The northern half of the kingdom became Israel, while the southern half became Judah.

In the years that followed, Israel became the more powerful kingdom, but then around 700 BC, the Assyrian empire overran Israel, and carried away the inhabitants, and created the story of the 10 lost tribes.

The southern kingdom of Judah survived a bit longer, and enjoyed an era of prosperity around 600 BC.

This book examines the recent archaeological work that has been completed in the Holy Land, and concludes that the archaeological evidence does not match the Old Testament story. What the archaeological evidence says is that at the time when David would have been king, Jerusalem was a small insignificant village. In fact, the entire area of Judah was sparsely populated, and there is no evidence of a central administration, writing or professional soldiers.

The authors conclude that there never was a united monarchy of David or Solomon. While David and Solomon may have existed, they never governed a mighty nation. There stories are about as real as the stories of King Arthur. “There is good reason to suggest that there were always two distinct highland entities, of which the southern was always the poorer, weaker, and more rural, and less influential—until it rose to sudden spectacular prominence after the fall of the northern kingdom of Israel.”

The authors conclude that the Old Testament was written from scratch during the reign of kind Josiah, around 620 BC. It is the skillful weaving of different tribal legends intended to unite the Hebrew people living in Judah and the old northern country of Israel.

“To the people of Judah at the time when the biblical epic was first crafted, a new David had come to the throne, intent on resorting the glory of his distant ancestors. This was Josiah, described as the most devoted of all Judahite kings. And Josiah was able to roll history back from his own days to the time of the legendary united monarchy. By cleaning Judah of the abomination of idolatry—first introduced into Jerusalem by Solomon with his harem of foreign wives (1 Kings 11:1-8)—Josiah could nullify the transgressions that led to the breakdown of the Davidic ‘empire.’ What the Deuteronomistic historian wanted to say is simple and powerful: there is still a way to regain the glory of the past.

“So Josiah embarked on establishing a united monarchy that would link Judah with the territories of the former northern kingdom through the royal institutions, military forces, and single-minded devotion to Jerusalem that are so central to the biblical narrative of David. As the monarch sitting on the throne of David in Jerusalem, Josiah was the only legitimate heir to the Davidic empire, that is, to the Davidic territories. He was about to ‘regain’ the territories of the now destroyed northern kingdom, the kingdom that was born from the sins of Solomon. And the words of 1 Kings 4-25, that ‘Judah and Israel dwelt in safety from Dan even to Beersheba,’ summarize those hopes of territorial expansion and quest for peaceful, prosperous times, similar to the mythical past, when a king ruled from Jerusalem over the territories of Judah and Israel combined. ( )
  ramon4 | Sep 15, 2016 |
Los patriarcas descriptos en la Biblia no han existido. José no tiene ningún registro en los archivos egipcios. El éxodo desde Egipto a la tierra prometida no tienen prueba histórica ni arqueológica alguna y es imposible que se haya realizado. La conquista de Canaán por los hebreos tal como está contada en Biblia no existió. Todo esto ya lo reconocen desde hace algun tiempo biblistas judíos y cristianos (ver como ejemplo Damien Noel, publicado desde 2002 en la editorial católica Verbo Divino), así que en este aspecto este libro no viene más que a confirmar y dar más prueba de aquello.
Pero el libro va más allá. Pone en seria duda la existencia misma de David y de Salomón o, en todo caso dice que está demostrada la existencia de un rey David pero que está lejos de ser el rey legendario descripto en la Biblia. También demuestra que el reino unificado de David -Salomón no fue tal y que casi gran parte de la Biblia judía no fue escrita durante este reinado sino durante el del rey Josías de Judá, después de la caída del reino de Israel en manos de los asiririos y poco antes de la caída de Judá en manos de los babilonios.
Este libro tira por la borda creencias milenarias. De ser cierto lo que dice, quedarían sin fundamento histórico todo el judaísmo y el cristianismo. Ya se sabe: sin sustento historico, es decir, si no cierto de que existieron Abraham, Jacob o Moisés , de que el éxodo exisitó o de que Cristo fue descendiente de David, puede quedar cualquier cosa, menos el judaísmo o el cristianismo tal como los conocemos. ( )
  Daneri | Jul 21, 2014 |
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Silberman, Neil Asherautor principaltodas as ediçõesconfirmado
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The world in which the Bible was created was not a mythic realm of great cities and saintly heroes, but a tiny, down-to-earth kingdom where people struggled for their future against the all-too-human fears of war, poverty, injustice, disease, famine and drought.
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In this groundbreaking work that sets apart fact and legend, authors Finkelstein and Silberman use significant archeological discoveries to provide historical information about biblical Israel and its neighbors. In this iconoclastic and provocative work, leading scholars Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman draw on recent archaeological research to present a dramatically revised portrait of ancient Israel and its neighbors. They argue that crucial evidence (or a telling lack of evidence) at digs in Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon suggests that many of the most famous stories in the Bible--the wanderings of the patriarchs, the Exodus from Egypt, Joshua's conquest of Canaan, and David and Solomon's vast empire--reflect the world of the later authors rather than actual historical facts. Challenging the fundamentalist readings of the scriptures and marshaling the latest archaeological evidence to support its new vision of ancient Israel, The Bible Unearthed offers a fascinating and controversial perspective on when and why the Bible was written and why it possesses such great spiritual and emotional power today.

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