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Tom Holland (1) (1968–)

Autor(a) de Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic

Para outros autores com o nome Tom Holland, veja a página de desambiguação.

21+ Works 11,657 Membros 216 Reviews 18 Favorited


Obras de Tom Holland

Associated Works

Ilíada (0750) — Posfácio, algumas edições40,367 cópias
The Histories (0420) — Tradutor, algumas edições10,163 cópias
The Persian Boy (1972) — Introdução, algumas edições2,346 cópias
Fire from Heaven (1969) — Introdução, algumas edições2,218 cópias
Funeral Games (1981) — Introdução, algumas edições1,121 cópias
The Library Book (2012) — Contribuinte — 399 cópias
I Wish I'd Been There, Book Two: European History (2008) — Contribuinte — 155 cópias


Conhecimento Comum



The Birth of Islam, has Holland got it right? em History: On learning from and writing history (Setembro 2015)
New Herodotus em Ancient History (Novembro 2013)
Tom Holland's In the Shadow of the Sword em Ancient History (Julho 2012)
Rubicon by Tom Holland em Ancient History (Dezembro 2009)


Rome’s history tells a story of how the city’s memories shape its future. Precedents shaped the decision made in the future starting with the liberation of the city from kings, to being a free republic, to an empire of the republic, and finally the empire controlled by an emperor. The republic form of Rome is the centerpiece of this book. Focusing on the last circa 100 years of the republic and mostly on the characters that changed its future. Tom Holland utilizes culture to explain their actions and shows the impact on the people of the city.

A seemingly paradoxical culture in many ways such as cherishing freedom above all else but desire slaves. Freedom was a signature of Rome, embedded in their utilization of citizenship. A status most honored. Freedom provided for free speech, property rights, and other legal rights. Freedom was relative to those who did and did not have citizenship. The slave revolts of Spartacus did not want to end the system of slavery, but wanted citizenship and have their own slaves (except Spartacus himself who did want to abolish the system of slavery).

Competition for wealth and political power was everyone’s game. Having that power was tenuous, as competitors were always trying to rise. Holland describes this competition as savagely meritocratic. Privileges held by birth did not guarantee status. Merit via achievements was honorific, but extreme achievement was a threat to the state. As merit earn political power, too mush achievement can facilitate supremacy over the state.

An aversion to change but always changing due to demands from citizens and constitutional reforms. One such change was allowing everyone, even the plebeians (lower class), to get elected. The problem was that getting elected required a lot of time and resources which only the patrician (upper class) had, which is why the aristocracy accepted the change. Given the representation of the city was usually (always) from the patrician, the plebeians were tyrannized much like during the time of kings. A general representation of the Roman political system would be to define it by how well it worked, not whether it was logical. Anything inefficient would be abolished. Change had to be rooted in tradition.

A Roman army was meant to serve whoever was constitutionally appointed to serve rather than loyalty to any particular general. Before the professionalization of legions, only those with property could fight for Rome. Those with property had more incentive to protect Rome. When Rome wants and influence expanded, wars became long lasting making protection of property difficult. The property requirement to join a legion was eliminated and was used as a reward for war rather than an incentive. When the state started to supply the armor and weapons, the legion was professionalized.

War required an honorable reason, it could not be a simple conquest for gold or power. Moral rectitude was required for war. Even though extremely warped, Rome claimed that the empire was won in self-defense, not bullying. Proclaiming that Roman values and institutions were superior, that they had a civilizing mission. There proclamations are different compared when Rome had initially begun to conquer. Conquered regions were kept their own regulations, not replaced with Roman laws. A pretense that there was no change.

The death of the republic was in some ways gradual and in other, very sudden. As Caesar become too politically powerful, he gained many enemies which wanted him gone. Rather than relinquish the achievements earned, Caesar took an example from Sulla and used the legions to go against Rome. Sulla created a precedent by keeping his legions and using them against Rome itself. Caesar officially went against Rome by crossing the Rubicon, hence the term Rubicon used as a crossing point of no return. The ensuing battles created a power gap, filled by victors. Opponents of the victors were sentenced to death, eroding free speech. Without free speech, there was no more republic epitomized in that even private property was easy confiscated by a commissar. Many actions by the first emperor Augustus, were seen as a defense of the republic while gradually reducing the peoples’ rights.

The way Tom Holland wrote the book makes history fun to learn without simplifying the complex nature of an entire people. From the specific people that changed how Rome behaved, to the pressures they were under, and the impact on everyone, Holland wrote a very holistic narrative. This book was tailored for how the republic fell which creates the problem that very little written on the rise of empire as to make it slightly difficult to understand the political change.
… (mais)
Eugene_Kernes | outras 69 resenhas | Jun 4, 2024 |
'Persian Fire' tells the history of Persia, Greece, and their interaction with each other. The author does not stick to a particular type of history such as just looking at the social side of the empires or just the political/military side, the author writes about the empires from a multitude of perspectives which gives the book depth and breadth. The explanations of strategies used in the political and military realms strengthens the value gained by studying the empires. The best part of the book is that it gives a balance between anecdotal accounts and the general theory behind the junctures. The book is packed with details and the density at which the author presents the details sometimes weights against the reader. The difficulty with so many details is that it becomes slightly difficult to judge the transition from one topic to another. Another difficulties in the book come about not knowing which time period the author is discussing.… (mais)
Eugene_Kernes | outras 37 resenhas | Jun 4, 2024 |
Durante mucho tiempo, la Pax Romana se ha venerado como una edad de oro. En su apogeo, el Imperio romano se extendía desde Escocia hasta Arabia, y en él vivía en torno a una cuarta parte de la humanidad. Era el Estado más rico y formidable que el mundo había visto hasta entonces.

Pax narra la deslumbrante historia de una Roma en la cúspide de su poder, historia que comienza en el 69 d.?C., cuando cuatro césares gobernaron el imperio en fugaz sucesión, y termina siete décadas más tarde, con la muerte de Adriano. Desde el brillo de la capital hasta los reinos allende las fronteras romanas, el célebre historiador Tom Holland retrata el imperio en todo su esplendor. Asistiremos absortos a un desfile de espectaculares e impactantes escenas, como la destrucción de Jerusalén y Pompeya, la construcción del Coliseo o las conquistas de Trajano. Holland hace que los romanos cobren vida ante nuestros ojos, desde el más humilde esclavo hasta el emperador, y muestra cómo la prosperidad de la paz romana se construyó también gracias al poder sin precedentes de las legiones.… (mais)
Petetecb | outras 3 resenhas | May 3, 2024 |
Christianity, from the outset, has been reformed by new adherents. So Christ's message was altered by his disciples and radically altered by Paul. There were reformations throughout the ancient years as e.g. Constantine establishing the Council of Nicea and discarding various views as heresy. A major reformationb was made by Gregory VII who established the power of the papacy over empire and set standards for priests of education and behaviour including celibacy. There was the Reformation of Luther, the counter-reformation and a long list of protestant reformations e.g. Calvinism and the Puritans. At every step, Holland argues, the reformation establishes a Christian value, or series of values, as over-riding what has become the norm; but the reformation could not occur in the absence of that norm because Christian values inform both.… (mais)
denmoir | outras 15 resenhas | Apr 28, 2024 |



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