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André Gide (1869–1951)

Autor(a) de The Immoralist

282+ Works 15,078 Membros 185 Reviews 44 Favorited

About the Author

Gide, the reflective rebel against bourgeois morality and one of the most important and controversial figures in modern European literature, published his first book anonymously at the age of 18. Gide was born in Paris, the only child of a law professor and a strict Calvinist mother. As a young mostrar mais man, he was an ardent member of the symbolist group, but the style of his later work is more in the tradition of classicism. Much of his work is autobiographical, and the story of his youth and early adult years and the discovery of his own sexual tendencies is related in Si le grain ne meurt (If it die . . .) (1926). Corydon (1923) deals with the question of homosexuality openly. Gide's reflections on life and literature are contained in his Journals (1954), which span the years 1889--1949. He was a founder of the influential Nouvelle Revue Francaise, in which the works of many prominent modern European authors appeared, and he remained a director until 1941. He resigned when the journal passed into the hands of the collaborationists. Gide's sympathies with communism prompted him to travel to Russia, where he found the realities of Soviet life less attractive than he had imagined. His accounts of his disillusionment were published as Return from the U.S.S.R. (1937) and Afterthoughts from the U.S.S.R. (1938). Always preoccupied with freedom, a champion of the oppressed and a skeptic, he remained an incredibly youthful spirit. Gide himself classified his fiction into three categories: satirical tales with elements of farce like Les Caves du Vatican (Lafcadio's Adventures) (1914), which he termed soties; ironic stories narrated in the first person like The Immoralist (1902) and Strait Is the Gate (1909), which he called recits; and a more complex narrative related from a multifaceted point of view, which he called a roman (novel). The only example of the last category that he published was The Counterfeiters (1926). Throughout his career, Gide maintained an extensive correspondence with such noted figures as Valery, Claudel, Rilke, and others. In 1947, he received the Nobel Prize for Literature. (Bowker Author Biography) mostrar menos


Obras de André Gide

The Immoralist (1902) 3,360 cópias
Les faux-monnayeurs (1925) 1,407 cópias
The Vatican Cellars (1914) 1,383 cópias
Strait is the Gate (1924) 1,380 cópias
The Pastoral Symphony (1919) 1,076 cópias
The Counterfeiters / Journal of The Counterfeiters (1925) — Autor — 866 cópias
If It Die (1920) — Autor — 518 cópias
Fruits of the Earth (1897) — Autor — 464 cópias
Corydon (1920) — Autor — 351 cópias
Two Symphonies (1911) — Autor — 301 cópias
Marshlands (1895) — Autor — 216 cópias
Journals: 1889-1949 (1956) 181 cópias
Isabelle (1911) — Autor — 167 cópias
Travels in the Congo (1927) — Autor — 155 cópias
Dostoevsky (1923) — Autor — 126 cópias
Madeleine (1947) — Autor — 111 cópias
Two Legends: Oedipus and Theseus (1931) — Autor — 108 cópias
L'école des femmes (1929) — Autor — 106 cópias
The journals of André Gide. Vol 1/2 : 1889-1924 (1948) — Autor — 103 cópias
Oscar Wilde: A Biography (1910) — Autor — 101 cópias
Theseus (1946) — Autor — 93 cópias
Urien's voyage (1893) — Autor — 85 cópias
The School for Wives (1929) — Autor — 74 cópias
Amyntas: North African Journals (1906) — Autor — 71 cópias
The journals of André Gide. Vol 4/4 : 1939-1949 (1954) — Autor — 64 cópias
Le Prométhée mal enchaîné (1899) — Autor — 60 cópias
Retour de l'U.R.S.S (1936) — Autor — 59 cópias
Gide. Anthologie de la poésie française (La Pléiade) (1949) — Editor; Prefácio, algumas edições57 cópias
Journal of the Counterfeiters (1927) — Autor — 54 cópias
The Return of the Prodigal Son (1907) — Autor — 52 cópias
Voyage au Congo (1927) — Autor — 52 cópias
Notes on Chopin (1931) — Autor — 51 cópias
Strait is the Gate / The Vatican Cellars (1909) — Autor — 48 cópias
Journal 1889-1939 (1939) — Autor — 47 cópias
The living thoughts of Montaigne (1929) — Autor — 47 cópias
The Trial (1948) — Autor — 47 cópias
Pretexts; reflections on literature and morality (1903) — Autor — 46 cópias
Imaginary Interviews (1941) — Autor — 45 cópias
Notebooks of Andre Walter (1891) — Autor — 43 cópias
Autumn Leaves (1949) — Autor — 42 cópias
Souvenirs de la cour d'assises (1914) — Autor — 38 cópias
So be it; or, The chips are down (1946) — Autor — 38 cópias
The White Notebook (1964) 32 cópias
Marshlands and Prometheus Misbound (1953) — Autor — 27 cópias
Diario (1999) 27 cópias
Le Ramier (1907) — Autor — 23 cópias
The Andre Gide reader (1971) 17 cópias
La sequestree de poitiers / l'affaire redureau (1930) — Autor — 17 cópias
Saül : Drame en cinq actes (1903) — Autor — 16 cópias
Les nouvelles nourritures (1936) — Autor — 15 cópias
Gide : Oedipe - Cocteau : La machine infernale (1968) — Autor — 15 cópias
Gide. Souvenirs et voyages (La Pléiade) (2001) — Autor — 14 cópias
Journal, 1939-1942 (1942) — Autor — 13 cópias
Judge not (1914) — Autor — 13 cópias
Il caso Redureau (1930) — Autor — 13 cópias
Sämtliche Erzählungen (1965) 11 cópias
Théâtre (1901) 10 cópias
LA GUIRLANDE DES ANNES (1941) — Autor — 10 cópias
Retouches à mon Retour de l'U.R.S.S (1937) — Autor — 9 cópias
De l'influence en littérature (1900) — Autor — 8 cópias
Gide : Essais critiques (1999) — Autor — 8 cópias
Incidences (1924) — Autor — 8 cópias
Oedipe (1930) — Autor — 7 cópias
Robert (1930) — Autor — 7 cópias
Romanzi 6 cópias
Journal, 1942-1949 (1950) — Autor — 6 cópias
Caro maestro, caro Simenon (1977) 5 cópias
My theater. Five plays and an essay (1934) — Autor — 5 cópias
Le grincheux (2001) 5 cópias
Geneviève (1936) — Autor — 5 cópias
Pages de journal (1929-1932) (1934) — Autor — 4 cópias
Diario 1887-1910 (2021) 4 cópias
Kitsas uks ; Valerahategijad ; Theseus (1909) — Autor — 4 cópias
Pages choisies (1954) — Autor — 4 cópias
Opere 3 cópias
Paludi-I nutrimenti terrestri (1895) — Autor — 3 cópias
Gertrude 3 cópias
Poussin (2010) 3 cópias
Romane und lyrische Prosa (1973) 3 cópias
Diario 1911-1915 (2021) — Autor — 2 cópias
Coffret Gide Journal 2v (2022) 2 cópias
Deux interviews imaginaires suivis de feuillets (1947) — Autor — 2 cópias
El Hadj (1897) — Autor — 2 cópias
Diario 1936-1950 (2022) 2 cópias
Günlük (1997) 2 cópias
Diario 1926-1935 (2022) 2 cópias
Erzählungen 2 cópias
André Gide, Christian Beck. Correspondance (1994) — Autor — 2 cópias
Fatti di Cronaca (1994) 2 cópias
Numquid et tu? 2 cópias
Gide André 2 cópias
Le roi Candaule (1901) — Autor — 2 cópias
Perséphone (1949) — Autor — 2 cópias
Découvrons Henri Michaux (1941) — Autor — 2 cópias
Samtlìche Erzahlungen 1 exemplar(es)
Dziennik (1992) 1 exemplar(es)
Pastoraalisinfonia 1 exemplar(es)
Poemi in prosa 1 exemplar(es)
Obras Escogidas 1 exemplar(es)
Diarios 1911-1925 1 exemplar(es)
Jeunesse 1 exemplar(es)
Storia di Pierrette (2010) 1 exemplar(es)
Immoralist 1 exemplar(es)
Os Moedeiros Falsos 1 exemplar(es)
Prem Aur Prakash 1 exemplar(es)
Self portraits 1 exemplar(es)
Urians reis 1 exemplar(es)
Journal: 1889-1939 1 exemplar(es)
Récits, roman, soties 1 exemplar(es)
Se il grano non muore: 1 (2017) 1 exemplar(es)
Eloges 1 exemplar(es)
Chopin Uzerine Notlar 1 exemplar(es)
Tagebcher — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
Le Retour (1947) 1 exemplar(es)
Rencontres (1948) 1 exemplar(es)
André Gide, 1947 1 exemplar(es)
I nutrimenti terrestri-Paludi (1999) 1 exemplar(es)
Le Traité du Narcisse (1892) 1 exemplar(es)
Recits, Roman, Soties (1948) 1 exemplar(es)
Correspondance avec sa mère, 1880-1895 (1988) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
Falskmyntarna del III 1 exemplar(es)
Falskmyntarna del I-II 1 exemplar(es)
The Counterfeiters [extracts] (1925) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
Pages from the Journal 1 exemplar(es)
André Gide, Aline Mayrisch. Correspondance, 1903-1946 (2003) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
LETTERE AD ANGELA 1986 1 exemplar(es)
Poesie 1 exemplar(es)
A Crime Without A Motive 1 exemplar(es)
Rencontres 1 exemplar(es)
Bathseba ; dramatisches Gedicht in drei Monologen (1908) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
La tentative amoureuse ou Le traité du vain désir (1893) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
André Gide, Maurice Denis, Correspondance, 1892-1945 (2006) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
Philoctète et Thésée (1898) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
Pântanos 1 exemplar(es)
Povodi i odjeci (1926) 1 exemplar(es)
LES DEMI-DIEUX: Poussin (1945) 1 exemplar(es)
Le Treizième Arbre (1935) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
De nieuwe spijzen 1 exemplar(es)
André Gide, André Suarès. Correspondance, 1908-1920 (1963) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
Attendu que 1 exemplar(es)
Un esprit non prévenu 1 exemplar(es)
André Gide, Valery Larbaud. Correspondance, 1905-1938 (1989) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
André Gide, Arnold Bennett. Correspondance, 1911-1931 (1964) — Autor — 1 exemplar(es)
Dindiki. 1 exemplar(es)
La Comtesse (1999) 1 exemplar(es)
Trozos Escogidos (1921) 1 exemplar(es)
MORCEAUX CHOISIS. (1921) 1 exemplar(es)
Littérature engagée 1 exemplar(es)
Hyrden 1 exemplar(es)

Associated Works

The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824) — Posfácio, algumas edições2,415 cópias
Night Flight (1930) — Prefácio, algumas edições2,034 cópias
Barabbas (1944) — Letter, algumas edições1,413 cópias
Gitanjali (1910) — Tradutor, algumas edições1,310 cópias
Typhoon (1902) — Tradutor, algumas edições829 cópias
The Assassin's Cloak: An Anthology of the World's Greatest Diarists (2000) — Contribuinte, algumas edições556 cópias
Essays, Part 1/3 (1580) — Prefácio, algumas edições533 cópias
French Stories (1960) — Contribuinte — 509 cópias
The Queen of Spades (1834) — Tradutor, algumas edições485 cópias
The God That Failed (1944) — Contribuinte — 435 cópias
A World of Great Stories (1947) 263 cópias
The Penguin Book of International Gay Writing (1995) — Contribuinte — 180 cópias
The Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature (1998) — Contribuinte — 161 cópias
Eleven Modern Short Novels (1970) — Contribuinte — 49 cópias
rororo Monographien, Nr.4, Antoine de Saint-Exupery (1956) — Contribuinte, algumas edições38 cópias
The Shot (1831) — Tradutor, algumas edições37 cópias
The Snowstorm (1983) — Tradutor, algumas edições36 cópias
Edouard Vuillard, 1868-1940 (1971) — Contribuinte — 35 cópias
The Vintage Book of Classic Crime (1993) — Contribuinte — 34 cópias
The Penguin Book of Twentieth-Century Protest (1998) — Contribuinte — 31 cópias
Der Postmeister (1955) — Tradutor, algumas edições28 cópias
Ten Modern Short Novels (1958) — Contribuinte — 27 cópias
Oscar Wilde: A Collection of Critical Essays (1969) — Contribuinte — 26 cópias
Shakespeare : Oeuvres complètes, tome 2 : Roméo et Juliette (1959) — Tradutor, algumas edições; Avant-propos, algumas edições16 cópias
Great Short Novels of the World (1927) — Contribuinte — 14 cópias
Les Faux Monnayeurs - d'André Gide (Profil D'Une Oeuvre) (1970) — Contribuinte — 7 cópias
Das Simenon-Lesebuch (2002) — Contribuinte — 6 cópias
André Gide's The Immoralist: A Play — Autor — 5 cópias
American Aphrodite (Volume Three, Number Twelve) (1953) — Contribuinte — 4 cópias
Pléiade: Goethe: Théâtre complet (1942) — Prefácio, algumas edições3 cópias
Nouvelles — Tradutor, algumas edições2 cópias
Théâtre complet. Avant-propos d'André Gide (1938) — Prefácio, algumas edições; Tradutor, algumas edições1 exemplar(es)
フランス短篇24 (現代の世界文学) (1989) — Contribuinte — 1 exemplar(es)


1001 (113) 1001 books (102) 19th century (139) 20th century (403) André Gide (96) anthology (183) autobiography (123) aviation (98) biography (149) classic (143) classics (193) communism (70) diary (187) essays (126) fiction (2,211) France (408) French (963) French fiction (143) French literature (1,101) Gide (91) gothic (79) history (88) homosexuality (77) journal (102) literature (848) memoir (110) narrativa (68) Nobel Prize (167) non-fiction (177) novel (685) philosophy (171) poetry (263) read (127) religion (160) Roman (314) Scotland (86) short stories (143) to-read (911) translation (159) unread (117)

Conhecimento Comum



Réunit deux textes de Gide : des souvenirs de ses rencontres avec Oscar Wilde et un essai sur le De Profundis lors de la première parution en français de ce texte.
marievictoire | outras 2 resenhas | Mar 26, 2024 |
This is a difficult story to appreciate today, removed from its original context. Alissa and Jerome love each other, and Alissa's sister Juliette also loves Jerome. Oh, and they're first cousins who grew up around each other. Alissa tries to give Jerome up to her sister, but Juliette matches the sacrifice by immediately marrying some random guy who appeared on the scene in order to remove herself from the picture.

Alissa though continues and takes to a far extreme her self-sacrifice. She has the idea that human love is vastly inferior to love of God and that it indeed gets in the way.
"What can the soul prefer to happiness?" I cried, impetuously. She whispered: "Holiness..."
She tells Jerome:
"In the first moments of your stay at Fongueusemare it was astonishment that I felt - soon after it was uneasiness - at the strange contentment that filled my whole being in your presence; 'a contentment so great,' you said, 'that I desire nothing beyond!' Alas! that is just what makes me uneasy... 'If it did not suffice, it would not be happiness,' you said, do you remember? And I did not know what to answer. No, Jerome, it does not suffice us. Jerome, it must not suffice us. I cannot take this delicious contentment for the true one... We were born for a happiness other than that..."
In the name of this love of God, she continually pushes Jerome away, renouncing human love and happiness. Having renounced earthly pleasure, she naturally wastes away and dies, though only about in her late twenties. Jerome is given her diary after her death, in which she writes that she loves him so much that she has failed to love God more. Despairing, she resolved to help Jerome reach that height of religious virtue that she was unable to reach herself by making it so he could not love her any longer.
Alas! I understand now only too well: between God and him there is no other obstacle but myself. If perhaps, as he says, his love for me at first inclined him to God, now that very love hinders him; he lingers with me, prefers me, and I am become the idol that keeps him back from making further progress in virtue. One of us two must needs attain to it; and as I despair of overcoming the love in my coward heart, grant me, my God, vouchsafe me strength to teach him to love me no longer, so that at the cost of my merits I may bring Thee his, which are so infinitely preferable... Was he not born for something better than to love me?
The cost of her unasked for sacrifice is soon her death, and the last line she writes is, "I should like to die now, quickly, before again realising that I am alone." As a final twist of the knife, Gide has Jerome visit Juliette ten years after Alissa's death, Juliette with 5 children now, and he tells her that he will not love another woman for the rest of his life. She asks him,
"Then you think that one can keep a hopeless love in one's heart for so long as that? And that life can breathe upon it every day, without extinguishing it?"
She puts her hands to her face and begins to cry, and we cannot doubt it is her own love for Jerome of which she was speaking. Lord a'mighty.

Though today we idealize and elevate romantic love, and the deists among us seemingly naturally place God's blessing upon it, this was not always the case. Among the turn of the twentieth century Protestants in northern France, apparently, romantic love and love of God were sometimes seen as rivals, or at least in tension with each other. Gide wrote this novel as a cautionary tale, to explore the taking of this attitude to the extreme. It is a twin tale to his novel The Immoralist, where Michel pursues the opposite extreme of earthly pleasure, also to disaster.

It was also a shot at his wife's tendencies, with whom the homosexual Gide had an unconsummated relationship. His wife who was also his cousin. While The Immoralist, in which a married homosexual man is attracted to Arab boys, is a shot at his own.
… (mais)
lelandleslie | outras 22 resenhas | Feb 24, 2024 |
A museum piece. Not one of those that draws the crowds, either; more of a worthy but kind of dull, really, Velazquez.

A companion to Gide's [b:Strait is the Gate|469406|Strait is the Gate (La Porte Etroite)|André Gide|https://d.gr-assets.com/books/1347378560s/469406.jpg|702632], in which he explores the dangers of over-religiosity, in The Immoralist he explores the dangers of rejecting the conventional moral life and trying to live for immediate aesthetic and sensual pleasures. Well, kind of. The life Michel leads here is still fairly conventional, even edging on moral, despite his lofty rhetoric otherwise. He just doesn't do much to impress the reader that he's in fact living out his stated aims and rejecting convention.

Which gets to what this story is perhaps really about: repressed homosexuality. I have to take issue with the book description where it states the book is "a frank defense of homosexuality". It is nothing of the kind. In regards to Michel's homosexuality, it is the opposite of frank. It is subtle enough that it apparently went almost totally unnoticed at the time of its publication. Furthermore it is not a defense; Michel is a mostly unsympathetic character, he treats his devoted (painfully so) wife rather appallingly, and as Gide writes in his preface to a later edition of the work, "If I had intended my hero as an example, it must be granted I did anything but succeed." Indeed, I can't imagine anyone thinking at the end of this story, "Man, that Michel, what a great guy."

It may be said this book is an illustration of the torments and harm that can come about through the individual repressing such an elementary, necessary part of him or herself. A repression that can be blamed on society's restrictive conception of what is proper and moral, to be sure. Even when the individual tries to live in a way more true to himself, it may still prove difficult.

The Immoralist may then be more a condemnation of narrow-minded society that produces tormented men like Michel, than of Michel's transgressive actions, or a defense of such a man produced by such a society.

Which all may make the book sound like an entertaining read, but I assure you, the ideas behind the book are more interesting than the book's execution.
… (mais)
lelandleslie | outras 45 resenhas | Feb 24, 2024 |
AnkaraLibrary | Feb 23, 2024 |



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Associated Authors

Dorothy Bussy Translator, Author
Robert Mallet Editor, Introduction, Préface, Notes
Marc Allégret Author, Photographer
Colette Author
Jacques Schiffrin Editor, Author
Léon Blum Author
Ruth Goetz Playwright
Augustus Goetz Playwright
Louise O. Fresco Introduction
Oscar Wilde Contributor
Franz Kafka Contributor
Daniël de Lange Translator
Jeff Last Translator
William S. Bell Introduction and Notes
Kjell Strömberg Introduction
Marc Beigbeder Contributor
Michel Rodde Illustrator
Antonio Frasconi Cover designer
Richard Howard Translator
Justin O'Brien Translator, Editor
David Watson Translator
Theo Kurpershoek Cover designer
H. Marsman Translator
Ivo Hristov Translator
A.H. Nijhoff Translator
Edward Gorey Cover artist
Harry Visser Translator
Carmen Castro Translator
Pierre Masson Editor, Author
Jef Last Translator
Martine Sagaert Editor, Contributor
Arnold Bennett Introduction
Eric Plooy Translator
John Russell Translator
Andrew Brown Translator
Percival Pollard Translator
David H. Walker Contributor, Postface
Wade Baskin Translator
Brian Aldiss Translator
Martti Anhava Translator
Malcolm Cowley Translator
Leon Katz Translator
Gertrud Müller Translator
Maurice Nadeau Introduction
John Florio Translator
F.J. de Jong Translator
Catherine Gide Avant-propos
Eric Marty Editor
Françoise Lioure Editor, Introduction
Samuel Putnam Translator
Jean Tipy Editor
Stuart Barr Collaboration
Pierre Lachasse Editor, Introduction
Jean d'Ormesson Présentation
Henri Thomas Preface
Claire Denis Collaboration à l'édition
Alain Goulet Contributor
André Schiffrin Avant-propos
June Guicharnaud Translator
Kevin O'Neill Collaboration
Claude Sicard Introduction
Daniel Durosay Contributor
Jean Delay Editor, Introduction
Céline Dhérin Contributor
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