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Thomas Carlyle (1795–1881)

Autor(a) de The French Revolution: A History

428+ Works 5,581 Membros 56 Reviews 12 Favorited

About the Author

Thomas Carlyle was a social critic and historian born in Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, December 4, 1795, the same year as John Keats, but Carlyle is considered an early Victorian rather than a Romantic. After completing his elementary studies, he went to the University of Edinburgh but left mostrar mais in 1814 without a degree. His parents wanted him to become a minister in the Scottish church, but his independence of spirit made such a life program impossible. In 1816 he fell in love with, and was rejected by, a young woman. His love affair was followed by a period of doubt and uncertainty described vividly in Sartor Resartus, a work published in 1833 that attracted much attention. Carlyle's first literary work reveals his admiration for German thought and philosophy, and especially for the two great German poets Schiller and Goethe. The fictional autobiography of a philosopher deeply impressed Ralph Waldo Emerson who brought it back to the United States to be published there. History of the French Revolution (1837), rewritten after parts of it were mistakenly burned as kindling by John Stuart Mill, cemented Carlyle's reputation. The work brought him fame but no great wealth. As a result of his comparative poverty he was induced to give four series of public lectures. Of these the most famous were those On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic of History delivered in 1840 and published in 1841. Past and Present (1843), and Latter Day Pamphlets (1850) present his economic and industrial theories. With The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (1845), The Life of John Sterling (1851), and History of Frederick II of Prussia, Called Frederick the Great (1858-1865) he returned to biography. In 1865, Carlyle was made Lord Rector of Edinburgh. (Bowker Author Biography) mostrar menos
Disambiguation Notice:

(eng) 1) CK Above
2) Erik Bruun actually wrote Test Your History IQ

Smelfungus is a name given by Laurence Sterne to Tobias Smollett as author of a volume of Travels through France and Italy, for the snarling abuse he heaps on the institutions and customs of the countries he visited.

In the 19th century it was adopted by Thomas Carlyle as a pen-name when he had any seriously severe criticisms to offer on things, particularly those that have gone or are going to the bad. Patrick Proctor Alexander also used the name in his book Mill and Carlyle, which contrasted Carlyle's views with those of John Stuart Mill. Proctor's Occasional Discourse on Sauertieg by Smelfungus attacks Carlyle's more brutal ideas.

Image credit: Helmolt, H.F., ed. History of the World. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1902.


Obras de Thomas Carlyle

The French Revolution: A History (1837) 1,298 cópias, 14 resenhas
Sartor Resartus (1836) 886 cópias, 7 resenhas
Past and Present (1843) 337 cópias, 3 resenhas
Sartor Resartus and On Heroes and Hero Worship (1888) 200 cópias, 2 resenhas
The French Revolution: A History, Volume 2 (1837) 124 cópias, 1 resenha
The French Revolution I (1837) 116 cópias, 1 resenha
On Great Men (1995) 108 cópias
Essay on Burns (1895) 86 cópias
Reminiscences (1881) 65 cópias
A Carlyle Reader (1969) 51 cópias, 1 resenha
Early Kings of Norway (2004) 42 cópias
Latter-Day Pamphlets (1983) 42 cópias, 1 resenha
The Modern Historiography Reader: Western Sources (2008) — Contribuinte — 36 cópias
The life of John Sterling (1871) 26 cópias
On the Choice of Books (1900) 19 cópias, 1 resenha
The Nigger question. The Negro question (1971) 15 cópias, 1 resenha
Selected Writings (2015) 14 cópias
The works of Thomas Carlyle (1941) 13 cópias
Chartism (1840) 11 cópias
Essays (2011) 9 cópias
Essays on Goethe 9 cópias
Shooting Niagara: And After? (2006) 8 cópias, 1 resenha
Life of Robert Burns (1859) 8 cópias
Fuego y cenizas (2011) 7 cópias
German romance: specimens of its chief authors (2010) — Editor — 7 cópias
Lecture on Martin Luther (1926) 7 cópias, 1 resenha
Tales by Musaeus, Tieck, Richter (2008) 6 cópias, 1 resenha
Life of Oliver Cromwell (1900) 5 cópias
The diamond necklace (1913) 4 cópias
Carlyle's complete works (2011) 3 cópias
Characteristics (1990) 3 cópias
On Heroes 2 cópias
Burns and Favorite Poems (1897) — Contribuinte — 2 cópias
Carlyle; an anthology (1953) 2 cópias
Critical and 2 cópias
[Works.] (2011) 2 cópias
Selections from Carlyle 2 cópias, 1 resenha
Sir Walter Scott 2 cópias
El Dictador de Francia 1 exemplar(es)
Reminiscences , Vol I 1 exemplar(es)
Reminiscences , Vol II 1 exemplar(es)
Pagine scelte 1 exemplar(es)
Samuel Johnson 1 exemplar(es)
Novalis (1987) 1 exemplar(es)
John Knox 1 exemplar(es)
Goethe's Faust 1 exemplar(es)
Autobiography 1 exemplar(es)
Carlyle's Choice Works 1 exemplar(es)
Carlyle's Complete Works Volume 11 (2013) 1 exemplar(es)
Carlyle's Complete Works Volume 19 (2013) 1 exemplar(es)
Carlyle 1 exemplar(es)
Biografía 1 exemplar(es)
"The Sacredness Of Work" 1 exemplar(es)
Den franske revolution 1 exemplar(es)
Carlyle's Works -Essays I-IV (1900) 1 exemplar(es)
Heroes past and present 1 exemplar(es)
Selected Essays (1915) 1 exemplar(es)
Carlyle's Works ... (2011) 1 exemplar(es)
The reign of terror 1 exemplar(es)
The Pocket Carlyle 1 exemplar(es)
Jesuitism 1 exemplar(es)
Worte [Thomas] Carlyles 1 exemplar(es)
Frederick The Great I-II 1 exemplar(es)
Oliver Cromwell I-II 1 exemplar(es)
Frederick The Great V-VI 1 exemplar(es)
Carlyle S Complete Works Volume V (2015) 1 exemplar(es)
Carlyle, part one 1 exemplar(es)
Selections 1 exemplar(es)

Associated Works

Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship (1795) — Tradutor, algumas edições949 cópias, 15 resenhas
The Book of Fantasy (1940) — Contribuinte — 618 cópias, 13 resenhas
Critical Theory Since Plato (1971) — Contribuinte, algumas edições403 cópias, 1 resenha
The Varieties of History: From Voltaire to the Present (1956) — Contribuinte — 332 cópias
Bleak House [Norton Critical Edition] (1977) — Contribuinte — 306 cópias, 7 resenhas
Prose of the Victorian Period (1958) — Contribuinte — 217 cópias
Coleridge's Poetry and Prose [Norton Critical Edition] (2003) — Contribuinte — 200 cópias
The Portable Victorian Reader (1972) — Contribuinte — 177 cópias
Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship and Travels (1821) — Tradutor, algumas edições118 cópias
The Standard Book of British and American Verse (1932) — Contribuinte — 115 cópias, 1 resenha
Mary Barton [Norton Critical Edition] (2008) — Contribuinte — 69 cópias, 1 resenha
The Romantics on Shakespeare (1992) — Contribuinte — 37 cópias
Classic Essays in English (1961) — Contribuinte — 22 cópias
Masters of British Literature, Volume B (2007) — Contribuinte — 17 cópias
An Anthology of Scottish Fantasy Literature (1996) — Contribuinte — 14 cópias
Letters and memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle, vol. I (2005) — Editor, algumas edições9 cópias
Letters and memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle (1983) — Editor, algumas edições9 cópias
Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre - Band 1 (German Edition) — Tradutor, algumas edições5 cópias
Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle Vol. II (2005) — Editor, algumas edições5 cópias
Letters & Memories of Jane Welsh Carlyle Vol III (2011) — Editor, algumas edições3 cópias
BYU Studies - Vol. 05, No. 3-4 (Spring/Summer 1964) (1964) — Contribuinte — 2 cópias


Conhecimento Comum

Data de nascimento
Data de falecimento
Local de enterro
Hoddam Kirkyard, Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, Scotland
Local de nascimento
Ecclesmachan, West Lothian, Scotland
Local de falecimento
Chelsea, UK
Locais de residência
Annan, Scotland
Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland, UK
Craigenputtock, Dumfriesshire, Scotland
London, England, UK
rector universiteit Edinburgh
vertaler Duits - Engels
Carlyle, Jane Welsh (wife)
Pour le Mérite für Wissenschaften und Künste (1874)
Foreign Honorary Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1878)
Aviso de desambiguação
1) CK Above
2) Erik Bruun actually wrote Test Your History IQ

Smelfungus is a name given by Laurence Sterne to Tobias Smollett as author of a volume of Travels through France and Italy, for the snarling abuse he heaps on the institutions and customs of the countries he visited.

In the 19th century it was adopted by Thomas Carlyle as a pen-name when he had any seriously severe criticisms to offer on things, particularly those that have gone or are going to the bad. Patrick Proctor Alexander also used the name in his book Mill and Carlyle, which contrasted Carlyle's views with those of John Stuart Mill. Proctor's Occasional Discourse on Sauertieg by Smelfungus attacks Carlyle's more brutal ideas.



You have to already know the French Revolution to get use out of this book. It is really just sarcastic commentary (wonderfully written sarcastic commentary) on the people and events. It’s like a heap of whipped cream on a slight bit of cake.

I got tired of having to look up every character and event in Wikipedia.
br77rino | outras 13 resenhas | May 25, 2024 |
Perhaps the most remarkable thing to note about Carlyle's masterpiece is that he had to rewrite from scratch the first volume of the work after the only copy he had was accidentally lost in a fire at the home of John Stuart Mill with whom he had left the copy for his review and comment. Carlyle is famous for his idiosyncratic style which is demanding and captivating. His politics were not that easy to get a fix on. He is frequently described as a Tory Radical or radical conservative. He is one of the few modern writers who subscribe to what is referred to as the "Great Man" theory of history, but he is also clearly influenced by German Idealism and subscribes to a philosophy of history that is based on the notion of a spirit of the times and the progress of ideas and movements that is inexorable.

In his history of the French Revolution, Carlyle covers the period from the latter stages of the rule of Louis XV through the famous "Whiff of Grapeshot" employed by Napoleon Bonaparte to quell the uprising of the Jacobins against the National Convention in the aftermath of the downfall of Robespierre and his associates. This is about as close to a day to day or play by play of the events of the revolution as you are likely to encounter. It bears no resemblance to the typical academic history of the revolution, much less the typical textbook treatment of this world historical event. In Carlyle's retelling which was published a mere twenty-two years after the Battle of Waterloo you are introduced to what seems like the proverbial "cast of thousands". Anyone who was anyone appears on Carlyle's stage and his or her role is accounted for and judged according to his influence and merit. On the whole Carlyle is, if not on the side of, definitely sympathetic to the Revolution. The historicist in him seems to require that he pronounce in favor of what is, because it was, a movement, a spirit, an energy whose time had come and was accordingly irresistible. There is no sympathy expressed for the institutions and actors of the ancien regime, although one does detect a certain admiration for the character of Marie Antoinette. Louis XVI, on the other hand, is doomed by the circumstances he is unequipped to deal with and a Hamlet like inability to make up his mind to follow through on a plan of action. He is reduced to a passive, hope for the best, response at every major turning point where a different course of action might have salvaged his situation.

Carlyle takes a harsh attitude toward the nobility and the clergy. He frequently employs the epithets Jesuitical and Jesuitism to criticize anyone of either a royalist or moderate republican bent. He is dismissive of the emigres, approves of the abolition of feudalism. His sympathies are with what he constantly refers to as the 'twenty-five millions", i.e., the population of France suffering from the want of basic means of subsistence, not just political oppression. I was a little surprised at the harsh assessment of the Girondins who are dismissed along with their "Formulas" a term Carlyle employs to indicate his contempt for political theory as opposed to what in other contexts you might call will to power. He seems to approve of the winning side because it is the winning side and therefore deserved to win. He only criticizes the extreme left of the Jacobins after they have completely wiped out their political opposition and committed themselves to a kind of permanent revolution in the manner of their totalitarian admirers and successors in the 20th century.

Carlyle's prose is difficult albeit elegant. It is as if Shakespeare decided to write a 700-page history instead of a five-act play. If you want to fully follow the story it is really valuable to keep your access to the Internet handy to look up all of the characters he introduces who were significant players if only for a brief time in this drama. Also, the text is replete with references to Greek mythology, ancient and medieval history, and the Bible. I found myself constantly pausing to do a search on my cell phone. Sometimes it is necessary to look up a proper name to understand if he refers to a person or a place. And his vocabulary is as challenging as his literary and historical store of knowledge.

I need to mention by way of a recommendation some benefits of the Modern Library edition which may be wanting in other versions. First, there is an index of proper names which although a common feature is not universal but advantageous when a character reappears in the narrative dozens or more pages after being initially introduced. Also, at the top of each page is a reference to the date of the action being described, at least the year, more frequently the month and sometimes the specific date. In the beginning of the book before Carlyle's text there is a Chronology of the events covered in his work. I found it a useful reference. The only negative associated with the Modern Library edition which is shares with other titles published in the Modern Library series is a poor quality of the typescript.

I should like to conclude by way of an example of Carlyle's rhetoric and thought a paragraph from the chapter Rushing Down in the Book entitled Terror the Order of the Day.

"No inconsiderable Oath, truly; forming, as has been often said, the most remarkable transaction in these last thousand years. Wherefrom likewise there follow, and will follow, results. The fulfillment of this Oath; that is to say the black desperate battle of Men against their whole Condition and Environment, -a battle, alas, withal against the Sin and Darkness that was in themselves as in others; this is the Reign of Terror. Transcendental despair was the purport of it, though not consciously so. False hopes, of Fraternity, Political Millenium, and what not, we have always seen: but the unseen heart of the whole, the transcendental despair, was not false; neither has it been of no effect. Despair, pushed far enough, completes the circle, so to speak; and becomes kind of genuine productive hope again."
… (mais)
citizencane | outras 13 resenhas | Mar 29, 2024 |
Condition: Very Good. 1889. Hardback. 2 vols completing the French Revolution series by Carlyle. Fine in very good half leather over marbled boards, with marbled gold page edges. Covers worn at spine, but remain very good. Vol I-II.
susangeib | Jul 18, 2023 |
roxiejg | outras 13 resenhas | Jun 19, 2023 |



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